These exhibition catalogs were published in conjunction with the XVII International Conference on the History of Cartography, organized by Imago Mundi Ltd. in Lisbon in 1997. They were published by the Comissao Nacional para as Comemoracoes dos Descobrimentos Portugueses (the National Commission for the Commemoration of Portuguese Discoveries) on the 500th anniversary of Vasco de Gama's departure from Lisbon to explore a route to India. The first volume draws on the collection of the Public Library and District Archive of Evora, with a special focus on rare cartographic manuscripts, and features 26 works of the East, Brazil, and mainland Portugal by Portuguese cartographers. The second volume highlights 102 works depicting the cartography of the border of Brazil in the 18th century. The third volume focuses on the developing borders of Africa in the 19th and early 20th centuries, with photographs and surveying tools in addition to maps. Each volume includes introductory text in Portuguese; the first volume includes an English translation. Each volume is elegantly designed and illustrated with color images. Soft illustrated covers.