Claudius Ptolemy was a mathematician, astronomer and geographer who worked in Alexandria, then a part of the Roman Empire, in the 2nd century AD. One of the most learned and influential men of his time, his theories dominated both astronomy and geography for nearly 1500 years. His writings were kept alive by Arabic scholars during the Middle Ages and reemerged in Europe during the Renaissance. The birth of printing led to wide dissemination of his great works on astronomy and geography. There were a number of editions of his Geographia beginning in 1477. These early editions contained maps based on his original writings, known as Ptolemaic maps. As geographic knowledge increased with the explorations of Columbus, Magellan, Cabot and others, maps of the New World were added, and maps of the Old World were revised. Ptolemy's Geographia continued to be revised and published by some of the most important cartographers including Martin Waldseemuller, Sebastian Munster, Giacomo Gastaldi, Jodocus Hondius, and Gerard Mercator (whose last edition was published in 1730).
This fine woodcut map is one of the earliest modern maps of the Iberian peninsula. It was reduced from Waldseemuller's 1513 map from the first modern atlas based on contemporary knowledge. Convoluted mountain ranges dominate the map, but most of the place names are recognizable. The title appears on verso, along with Latin text.
References: Mickwitz & Miekkavaara #208-30.
There are a number of small worm holes in the image that have been professionally infilled, and minor toning along the edges of the sheet. Remnants of hinge tape at top on verso.